This international Encyclopaedia provides a balanced, comprehensive account of contemporary trends in world, regional and nation-state government and politics. In 84 in-depth essays, in two scholarly volumes, it captures the global changes, both theoretical and factual, of the past three decades - to give an unprecedented overview of political science and political affairs on the eve of the new century. An essential resource, the Encyclopaedia of Government and Politics provides accessible, authoritative coverage of the disciplines, examining for example, political theory, processes and behaviour, policy-making, pressure groups, contemporary ideologies, international relations, and major issues in world affairs, such as nationalism, arms control and disarmament, human rights and democratisation. Written by experts in each field, the entries analyse traditional approaches (including access to non-Western sources), assess recent developments and chart the directions for future research; each topic includes extensive bibliographies and suggestions for further reading. The volumes are introduced and placed in context in an essay by Mary Hawkesworth, which advances the conceptual treatment of political science to a new level. The articles which follow are thematically arranged under nine main headings: Political Theory: Central Concepts, Contemporary Ideologies, Contemporary Political Systems, Political Institutions, Political Forces and Political Processes, Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces in the Nation-State, Policy-Making and Policies, International Relations, and Major Issues in Contemporary Politics. Key Features * 84 in-depth essays provide a current, balanced guide to international government and politics * Prestigious editors lead a worldwide team of specialists in each field * Clearly and incisively written to meet the needs of students, lecturers and practitioners at all levels * Helpful bibliographies - of new and classic material and suggestions for further reading * Extensive index of Topics and People
Modern courts are usually independent of other branches of government, but in
historical perspective many of the attributes associated with judicial
independence, legal professional competence and objectivity were absent or
considerably modified during the many centuries of judicial institutional
development which preceded the emergence of courts in the variety of
contemporary legal systems of the world. Martin Shapiro has correctly observed
that analysts of the attributes of courts ...