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Anatomy of an Indonesian Oil Palm Conflict

On land conflict between farmers and private palm oil plantation in Kubu Raya, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

On land conflict between farmers and private palm oil plantation in Kubu Raya, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Moving Average Filter for Ripple Current Elmination

In power electronics field concerning power converter applications; current control is becoming one of the key research areas. Typically, in current control applications, the inductor current is shaped to closely follow its reference. This is achieved by regulating the current via current control strategies. The rapid switching of the power semiconductor devices will forms the ripples on the regulated current. In analysis stage, for proper comparison between the regulated current and reference current, it is crucial that the current ripples are eliminated. Common fixed cut-off frequency filter, however, is not suitable in this application due to variable switching frequency nature of some current control techniques. Therefore, in this project, a variable cut-off frequency filtering technique based on numerical algorithm is developed to eliminate the current ripple without destroying the non-ripple data. To verify its performance, the algorithm is tested on several real data of regulated current. Result shows that the algorithm is able to filter the ripple current satisfactorily.

Typically, in current control applications, the inductor current is shaped to closely follow its reference. This is achieved by regulating the current via current control strategies.

Are mixed neighborhoods always unstable?

two-sided and one-sided tipping

A great deal of urban policy depends on the possibility of creating stable, economically and racially mixed neighborhoods. Many social interaction models - including the seminal Schelling (1971) model - have the feature that the only stable equilibria are fully segregated. These models suggest that if home-buyers have preferences over their neighborhoods' racial composition, a neighborhood with mixed racial composition is inherently unstable, in the sense that a small change in the composition sets off a dynamic process that converges to either 0% or 100% minority share. Card, Mas, and Rothstein (2008) outline an alternative "one-sided" tipping model in which neighborhoods with a minority share below a critical threshold are potentially stable, but those that exceed the threshold rapidly shift to 100% minority composition. In this paper we examine the racial dynamics of Census tracts in major metropolitan areas over the period from 1970 to 2000, focusing on the question of whether tipping is "two-sided" or "one-sided". The evidence suggests that tipping behavior is one-sided, and that neighborhoods with minority shares below the tipping point attract both white and minority residents.

As we have drawn the graph, at low levels of the minority share the demand
effect dominates, and as m rises from 0 the move up the inverse demand curve
yields a rise in the marginal willingness to pay by white buyers. At higher levels of
the ...