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When the Invasion of Land Failed

The Legacy of the Devonian Extinctions

The invasion of land by ocean-dwelling plants and animals was one of the most revolutionary events in the evolution of life on Earth, yet the animal invasion almost failed -- twice -- because of the twin mass extinctions of the Late Devonian Epoch. Some 359 to 375 million years ago, these catastrophic events dealt our ancestors a blow that almost drove them back into the sea. If those extinctions had been just a bit more severe, spiders and insects might have become the ecologically dominant forms of animal life on land. This book examines the profound evolutionary consequences of the Late Devonian extinctions, which shaped the composition of the modern terrestrial ecosystem. Only one group of four-limbed vertebrates now live on Earth while other tetrapod-like fishes are extinct. This gap is why the idea of "fish with feet" seems so peculiar yet these animals were once a vital part of our world.

Geologic record: fossil Lagerstätten and, 39, 190; imperfections of, 38–39, 62–66,
79,84–85, 164–166, 222 Glaciation: Carboniferous, 196–199; Cenozoic, 128,
144, 152, 190–191, 203–212; Famennian, 130–131, 188–191, 193, 195–196,
200, 203– 212; Frasnian, 115, 137, 144, 153, 203–212; Proterozoic, 14–15, 19,
21 Glasspool, I.J., 110–116, 156 Gravity, invasion problem of, 1–2, 3, 58,275
Great Devonian Interchange, 156. See also Invasive species Greererpeton, 218,
224–225 ...

The Economics of Computers

Input/output processors (e.g., selectors and multiplexors) bring information to the
memory system from devices such as card readers, consoles, and metering
instruments and/or deliver information to other devices such as line printers and ...

The Natural History of the Bible

An Environmental Exploration of the Hebrew Scriptures

Traversing river valleys, steppes, deserts, rain-fed forests, farmlands, and seacoasts, the early Israelites experienced all the contrasting ecological domains of the ancient Near East. As they grew from a nomadic clan to become a nation-state in Canaan, they interacted with indigenous societies of the region, absorbed selective elements of their cultures, and integrated them into a radically new culture of their own. Daniel Hillel reveals the interplay between the culture of the Israelites and the environments within which it evolved. More than just affecting their material existence, the region's ecology influenced their views of creation and the creator, their conception of humanity's role on Earth, their own distinctive identity and destiny, and their ethics. In The Natural History of the Bible, Hillel shows how the eclectic experiences of the Israelites shaped their perception of the overarching unity governing nature's varied manifestations. Where other societies idolized disparate and capricious forces of nature, the Israelites discerned essential harmony and higher moral purpose. Inspired by visionary prophets, they looked to a singular, omnipresent, omnipotent force of nature mandating justice and compassion in human affairs. Monotheism was promoted as state policy and centralized in the Temple of Jerusalem. After it was destroyed and the people were exiled, a collection of scrolls distilling the nation's memories and spiritual quest served as the focus of faith in its stead. A prominent environmental scientist who surveyed Israel's land and water resources and has worked on agricultural development projects throughout the region, Daniel Hillel is a uniquely qualified expert on the natural history of the lands of the Bible. Combining his scientific work with a passionate, life-long study of the Bible, Hillel offers new perspectives on biblical views of the environment and the origin of ethical monotheism as an outgrowth of the Israelites' internalized experiences.

The Times Atlas ofthe Bible. London: Times Books, 1987. Quinn ... Rasmussen,
C. G. Atlas ofthe Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan ... Ruether, R. R. Gaia
and God: An Ecofeminist Theology ofEarth Healing. San Francisco: Harper, 1994

The Dao of the Military

Liu An's Art of War

Master Sun's The Art of War, the best-known ancient text on adversarial strategy, is by no means China's only treatise on military affairs. A single chapter in the Huainanzi, an important compendium of philosophy and political theory written in the second century B.C.E., synthesizes the entire corpus of military literature inherited from the Chinese classical era. Drawing on all major, existing military writings, as well as other lost sources, it assesses tactics and strategy, logistics, organization, and political economy, as well as cosmology and the fundamental morality o.

An invasion was planned on the pretext of pacifying the region, but Liu An
insisted that such a plan ran counter to the principles of “sustaining the perishing,
reviving the extinct.” Liu An's memorial spends much space demonstrating the
folly of ...

Islam in America

Smith "surveys the history of Islam in the United States and profiles the lifestyle, religious practices, and worldviews of American Muslims."--Jacket.

Smith "surveys the history of Islam in the United States and profiles the lifestyle, religious practices, and worldviews of American Muslims."--Jacket.

Guardians of Islam

Religious Authority and Muslim Communities of Late Medieval Spain

"Kathryn A. Miller radically reconceptualizes what she calls the exclave experience of medieval Muslim minorities. By focusing on the legal scholars (faqihs) of fifteenth-century Aragonese Muslim communities and translating little-known and newly discovered texts, she unearths a sustained effort to connect with Muslim coreligionists and preserve practice and belief in the face of Christian influences. Devoted to securing and disseminating Islamic knowledge, these local authorities intervened in Christian courts on behalf of Muslims, provided Arabic translations, and taught and advised other Muslims. Miller follows the activities of the faqihs, their dialogue with Islamic authorities in nearby Muslim politics, their engagement with islamic texts, and their pursuit of traditional ideals of faith.

"Kathryn A. Miller radically reconceptualizes what she calls the exclave experience of medieval Muslim minorities.